Throughout the year, veterinary hospitals learn to expect and prepare for certain seasonal emergencies. In the summer we see a rash of foxtails and snake bites, in the spring more cats come in having eaten lilies. The fall and winter months are no different, and hold their own specific hazards for our pets, many of which are related to our holiday celebrations.
The holiday season is just around the corner. Soon streets will be flooded with trick-or-treaters, we’ll be gathering together to gorge on turkey and stuffing, and before we know it we’ll be counting down the New Year. The holidays hold the promise of time with friends and family, and we gather our pets with us as members of the family. With the arrival of house guests, gifts under the tree, and new foods in the kitchen, this time of year can also be particularly hazardous to our pets.
Dogs are infamous for their less than discriminating taste in foods. With chocolate in particular they appear as powerless to resist as we are. As Halloween and Christmas soon flood our houses with fun sized candy bars and chocolate infused treats of all description, many of our more audacious pets will find themselves taking a trip to the veterinary hospital.
The components of chocolate that make it toxic to dogs are caffeine and theobromine, which fall into a class of drugs called methylxanthines. These are the same ingredients that make chocolate a stimulant in people, and keep costumed children bouncing off the walls into the wee hours of the morning on November 1st. Dogs simply are more sensitive to their effects. Where people might experience a feeling of alertness or jitters, dogs experience signs ranging from vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, elevated heart rate, heart rhythm abnormalities, and even death.
In terms of toxicity, not all chocolates are created equal. Different forms of chocolate have different levels of theobromine with different corresponding risk of toxic effects. As a rule of thumb, the more bitter the chocolate, the more likely it is to cause a problem. Baker’s chocolate, cocoa power, and dark chocolate are the most potent and dangerous forms. Baker's chocolate being approximately 7 times as toxic as milk chocolate. The effects are also related to a dog’s weight, so smaller dogs are more at risk. If your 70 pound Labrador eats a single Hershey’s kiss, you’re probably ok. If your 5 pound Yorkie Poo eats a bar of dark chocolate, it’s time to get the keys and head to the hospital. For anything in between, just call your veterinarian. Let us know roughly how much chocolate your dog ate and we’ll tell you if there is significant risk.
The hallmark of treatment is decontamination of the stomach, and the earlier that treatment is initiated, the more effective it is. Most dogs will be made to vomit as soon as they arrive and every veterinarian and veterinary technician is familiar with the sickly sweet smell of chocolaty dog vomit. Further treatments depend on the amount ingested and if the dog is showing signs of toxicity.
Now that we've vilified chocolate, how about sugarless treats? Xylitol, a common sugar substitute is also very toxic to our pets. Xylitol is a sweetener found most commonly in sugarless gums, but also present in some candies, mints, cough drops, and tooth pastes.
If ingested by a dog, xylitol mimics the effects of sugar and causes the body to release insulin. This causes blood sugar levels to plummet and can result in collapse, seizures, and death. The toxin can also have delayed effects on the liver, and some dogs can go into liver failure up to 48 hours later. In smaller dogs, as little as a single piece of gum can cause toxicity.
If you suspect your dog ingested xylitol, as with chocolate, the earlier we treat, the better the chance of a good long-term outcome.
Fun times with our family and friends are on the horizon, and your dog will certainly want to share in the festivities. So dress them up for trick-or-treating, wrap a chew toy at Christmas, but save the sweets for the two legged folks. If your dog does get themselves into trouble, as they’re known to do, don’t panic, your veterinarian is here to help.
Dr. Miller is a graduate of the Veterinary School at the University of California, Davis. Prior to veterinary school he received his undergraduate degree in Environmental Science from the University of California Berkeley. Originally from Placerville, CA, he grew up in the country surrounded by lots of animals. Dr. Miller has worked extensively with Fix Our Ferals and did a one year rotating internship at East Bay Veterinary Specialists and Emergency. He has an orange tabby cat named Gonzo and Quigley, a Lab mix. Dr. Miller loves skiing, traveling, reading, and racquetball in his spare time. He is also, of course, a huge Cal fan!